it is an open question and it does depend on what you are wanting to take pictures of.
Jewellery in a studio environment allows for a much more controlled approach. Chasing insects around the country side is the other end of the scale, you need to be able to work quickly.
Lighting is a major consideration as normal flashes might be blocked with the lense so that needs some thought.
As has been said, 100mm (or around that) lenses are the most versatile, but a 180mm will give you that extra distance between you and the subject.
Diopter screw on 'filters' can work quite well, but the more glass you add between the sensor and the subject the more you potentially reduce quality.
Extension tubes won't add glass, do a similar thing to a dedicated macro lens and aren't as expensive as a macro lens, but they add fiddliness.